Marzia Faietti is Director of the Gabinetto Disegni e Stampe of the Uffizi, Florence, and Professor in the faculty of History of Art at the University of Bologna.
I grandi disegni italiani della Pinacoteca Nazionale di Bologna (2002)
Patricia Failing is Professor and Chair of the Division of Art History, University of Washington, Seattle.
Best Loved Art from American Museums(1983)
Doris Chase: Artist in Motion (University of Washington Press, Seattle, 1992)
Howard Kottler: Face to Face (1995)
Trevor Fairbrother is an independent art historian who is currently working on an exhibition about the artist–photographer F. Holland Day.
Ipswich Days: Arthur Wesley Dow and His Hometown
Morgan Falconer is a critic and journalist and writes regularly for The Times, Art World and Frieze.
Miguel Falomir is Head of the Department of Italian and French painting (to 1700) at the Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid.
Guillaume Faroult is a Curator at the Musée du Louvre, Paris.
Gabriele Fattorini is Hanna Kiel Fellow (2012–13) at The Harvard University Center for Italian Renaissance Studies at Villa I Tatti, Florence.
Marc Fecker is Gallery Manager at Didier Aaron Ltd., London.
Craig Felton is Professor of Art at Smith College, Northampton MA.
Simon Fenwick is an independent archivist and art historian.
Ferdinand is a
Ph.D. student at the University of Verona. Publications:
Juliette Ferdinand is a Ph.D. student at the University of Verona.
‘Connaissance, maîtrise et symbolique de l'eau chez
Bernard Palissy’ in: Le Salut par les
eaux et les herbes : medicina e letteratura tra Italia e Francia nel
Cinquecento e nel Seicento (Forthcoming 2012)
‘Connaissance, maîtrise et symbolique de l'eau chez Bernard Palissy’ in: Le Salut par les eaux et les herbes : medicina e letteratura tra Italia e Francia nel Cinquecento e nel Seicento (Forthcoming 2012)
Sylvia Ferino-Pagden is Director of the Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.
Eric Fernie was Director of the Courtauld Institute, London, from 1995 to 2003 and was President of the Society of Antiquaries of London from 2004 to 2007.
Giovan Battista Fidanza
is Associate Professor of Art History at University of Rome ‘Tor Vergata’.
Giovan Battista Fidanza is Associate Professor of Art History at University of Rome ‘Tor Vergata’.
‘Überlegungen zu Michelangelo als Holzbildhauer’, Wiener Jahrbuch für Kunstgeschichte (2010) ‘Le
vicende artistiche della chiesa di Sant'Anastasia al Palatino nel Seicento: una
verifica con la Visita Apostolica del 1727’, Bollettino d’Arte (2010) 'Tommaso Maria e Giacomo Conca per il palazzo
Lignani di Città di Castello’, Rivista d’Arte
pietre rivelate. Lo Studio di molte pietre di Pier Leone Ghezzi, Manoscritto 322 della Biblioteca Universitaria
Alessandrina (2011; edited
with P. Coen) ‘I
legni per «fabbriche», intagli e «figure» nel Vocabolario di Filippo Baldinucci: una ricostruzione delle fonti di
riferimento’, Rivista dell’Istituto
Nazionale d’Archeologia e Storia dell’Arte (2012)
‘Überlegungen zu Michelangelo als Holzbildhauer’, Wiener Jahrbuch für Kunstgeschichte (2010)
‘Le vicende artistiche della chiesa di Sant'Anastasia al Palatino nel Seicento: una verifica con la Visita Apostolica del 1727’, Bollettino d’Arte (2010)
'Tommaso Maria e Giacomo Conca per il palazzo Lignani di Città di Castello’, Rivista d’Arte (2011)
Le pietre rivelate. Lo Studio di molte pietre di Pier Leone Ghezzi, Manoscritto 322 della Biblioteca Universitaria Alessandrina (2011; edited with P. Coen)
‘I legni per «fabbriche», intagli e «figure» nel Vocabolario di Filippo Baldinucci: una ricostruzione delle fonti di riferimento’, Rivista dell’Istituto Nazionale d’Archeologia e Storia dell’Arte (2012)
Jan Piet Filedt Kok formerly worked at the Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, and the University of Amsterdam.
The Dance around the Golden Calf by Lucas van Leyden. (2008)
Catalogue of Early Netherlandish paintings in the Rijksmuseum (artists born before 1500) (Online since April 2009: www.rijksmuseum.nl/early-netherlandish-paintings)
Gabriele Finaldi is Deputy Director for Collections and Research at the Museo del Prado, Madrid.
Chris Fischer is a Senior Researcher and Head of the Centre for Advanced Studies in Master Drawings at the Statens Museum for Kunst, Copenhagen.
Jennifer Fletcher was a Senior Lecturer at the Courtauld Institute of Art, London, until September 2002.
Patrick Florizooneis the Archivist of the James Ensor Archives, Ghent.
Ensor et Les bains a Ostende (1999)
Katherine Flynn is an independent scholar and a research manager at Baxter Healthcare.
Susan Foister is Deputy Director and Director
of Collections at the National Gallery, London.
Susan Foister is Deputy Director and Director of Collections at the National Gallery, London.
Colin Ford is the curator of Eyewitness: Hungarian Photography in the 20th Century, currently on view at the Royal Academy, London.
Celina Fox is an independent art historian.
The Arts of Industry in the Age of Enlightenment (2009)
James Fox is a Research Fellow at Gonville & Caius College, Cambridge University.
David Franklin is Deputy Director and Chief Curator at the National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa.
Rosso in Italy: The Italian Career of Rosso Fiorentino (1994)
Painting in Renaissance Florence from 1500 to 1550 (2001)
Burton Fredericksen was formerly Chief Curator and Curator of Paintings at the J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, and founder and former Director of the Getty Provenance Index.
Chiara Frugoni was formerly Professor of Medieval History
at the University of Rome.
A distant City (1991)
Francesco e l’invenzione delle Stimmate (1993)
Il cantiere di Giotto. Le storie di san Francesco ad Assisi (1996; with B. Zanardi)
A day in a Medieval City (2006)
Francis of Assisi (1998)
Mille e non più mille. Viaggio fra le paure di fine millennio (1999; with G. Duby)
Books, Banks, Buttons (2003)
The Frescoes in the Scrovegni Chapel (2005)
Una solitudine abitata: Chiara d’Assisi (2006)
L’affare migliore di Enrico. Giotto e la cappella Scrovegni (2008)
La voce delle immagini. Pillole iconografiche dal Medioevo (2010)
Le storie di San Francesco/The Stories of St. Francis (2010)
Storia di Chiara e Francesco (Forthcoming 2011)
Roger Eliot Fry, 1866-1934
Founder of The Burlington Magazine, together with Robert Dell. Joint Editor from December 1909 until December 1913 with Lionel Cust and, from January 1914 until May 1919, with Lionel Cust and More Adey. Contributor to The Burlington Magazine from 1903 until 1934.
Painter, Italian renaissance scholar, Bloomsbury art critic and curator of European painting. Fry was born to Sir Edward Fry (1827–1918), a judge and Mariabella Hodgkin (Fry) (1833–1930) and raised in a Quaker household. Although headed for a career in science at Clifton College, Bristol, the lectures of John H. Middleton, Slade Professor of Art, impressed Fry. Fry graduated from King’s College, Cambridge, with firsts in natural sciences, 1887 and 1888. Partially to please his father he dabbled in scientific areas while studying studio painting on the side.
Entirely won over to art, he travelled to Italy in 1891 and studied studio painting at the Académie Julian, Paris in 1892. Returning to Italy and resolving to study art history, he read the works of Giovanni Morelli on connoisseurship and Walter Pater. His acquaintance with the scholar Bernard Berenson likely happened during this time. Fry soon established a reputation as a scholar of Italian art, lecturing on the subject for the Cambridge Extension Movement. Still painting, he met and married a fellow art student Helen Coombe (1864–1937) in 1896. Shortly thereafter Helen began exhibiting signs of mental illness, was hospitalized in 1899 but recovered somewhat. Fry's articles from 1900 onwards in the Athenaeum led to a regular position writing art criticism. His first book on one of the Old Masters, Giovanni Bellini (1899) appeared at this time.
Part of a group of English-speaking art experts, whose ranks included his friends Berenson and Herbert P. Horne, Fry used his influence to help found The Burlington Magazine in 1903.
Fry officially left The Burlington Magazine in 1919 after ten years as joint editor but continued publishing articles in the magazine and signed just under two hundred and fifty contributions for the Burlington.
As an Italian Renaissance scholar, he sided with Berenson against R. Langton Douglas in the famous connoisseurship-vs.-documentary art history feuds. Failing to be appointed as Slade Professor at Oxford in 1904, Fry accepted an invitation from J. Pierpont Morgan to visit the United States and consider the position of Curator of European Painting of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Although Fry hoped to succeed Edward Poynter as Director of the National Gallery in London, which ironically became available immediately after Fry accepted the Metropolitan job, Fry took the New York position, succeeding George H. Story. As Morgan's hand-picked curator, Fry accompanied the multi-millionaire on buying trips to Europe, now with a title of "European Adviser." Fry edited Joshua Reynolds' Discourses, which appeared in 1905. This marked the last of his interest in the Old Masters. The same year Fry encountered Matthew Prichard, then a curator of classical antiquities at the Boston Museum of Fine Art, who exposed him to his Bergsonian view of museology, but also oriental and modern art.
In 1906 Fry and Prichard met again, in Paris, were Prichard connected for Fry a relationship with Byzantine and modern art. Fry saw the work of Paul Cézanne for the first time the same year and from that moment, devoted his energies to modern art. The following year Fry persuaded the Board to release him from the Curator position in favor of a title as "European advisor," living in England. In 1910, however, a dispute with Morgan, who was Chairman of the Board of the Metropolitan, led to his dismissal. His wife was re-committed to an asylum. Fry met the painter Vanessa Bell and her husband, the critic Clive Bell, the same year, 1910, and emerged as a major figure in the circle of artists and writers known as the Bloomsbury group.
The group, whose most famous member was the writer Virginia Woolf, was engaged in tradition-breaking practices; Fry and Vanessa Bell were lovers, 1911-1913. Fry opened the exhibition "Manet and the Post-Impressionists at the Grafton Galleries," coining the term Post-Impressionist. England was not entirely prepared for the modernist sensibilities and Fry was denounced in the press, including the London Times. Fry took the criticism favorably and mounted a second show at Grafton Galleries in 1912 and establishing for himself the reputation as the champion of modern art. Part of Fry's devotion to modern art was the direct application, as Fry saw it, to common Arts and Crafts Movement form. He read papers on art at the Fabian Society and founded the Omega Workshops which manufactured quality-designed modernist objects. Young artists decorated furniture, designed fabrics, and pottery in the new Post-Impressionist style. Fry himself continued to paint, now in a looser decorative idiom. Wyndham Lewis was among the artists he employed. Though the First World War collapsed the Omega workshops, Fry's 1920 book Vision and Design, his collected essays from the Fabian Society and The Burlington Magazine, resulted in a fame as a art critic similar to John Ruskin half a century before.
Fry and Vanessa Bell briefly had a second relationship in 1921. However, in 1925 he met Helen Maitland Anrep (1885-1965) at a party in Bell's studio; Anrep left her husband and family living with Fry the rest of his life. Fry's second collected essays, Transformations, appeared in 1926. Already, Fry was at work on his most thought-through book, Cézanne (1927). Both the first serious account of the artist’s life as well as the first to show the relation of Cézanne’s watercolors to his late oil painting, Fry established himself as a modernist art historian as well as a critic. After a second denial of a Slade Professorship at Oxford in 1927, Fry accepted a similar Slade Professor position at Cambridge in 1933. Art History as an Academic Study, the inaugural lectures, espouses a chronological approach to art. After the lecture on Greek art in the series, however, he sustained in a fall in 1934 and died of apparent heart failure connected to his trauma. The Slade lectures were published as Last Lectures in 1939. Virginia Woolf wrote his biography, published in 1940, but largely confined herself to the public record out of deference to his relationship with her sister and her friend, Anrep.
Fry's clearest thoughts on art, according to Kenneth Clark, appeared in the introduction to Reynold's Discourses. Fry and Clive Bell enjoyed mutual inspiration from one another. It was Bell's 1914 polemic Art that introduced the concept of "significant form" to Fry, which would subsequently be more associated with Fry than Bell. In the essays of Vision and Design, Fry stated his case that all art could and should be appreciated principally by its "significant form." To a public suspicious of complicated modernist theories and the notion of expertising, Fry's viewer-approach dictum appealed to many. His books convinced a vast readership of the qualities of modern art. Fry criticized the German model of art scholarship in 1933 as seeing works of art "almost entirely from a chronological point of view, as coefficients of a time sequence, without reference to their aesthetic significance." Fry's populist approach to art became so pervasive that some thirty years later the German-American art historian Rudolf Wittkower decried it in his own lecture, "Art History as a Discipline." He owed much to Morelli and Pater, the latter of whom he remarked in 1898, "makes so many mistakes about pictures; but the strange, and for a Morelli-ite disappointing, thing is that the net result is so very just." His early monographs on Bellini and Veronese were the best writings on those artists of the time. Throughout his life, he continued to paint and always considered himself an artist as well as an art historian.
Select Bibliography: Virginia Woolf, Roger Fry, a Biography, London, 1940; Berel Land, ‘Significance of Form: The Dillemma of Roger Fry's Aesthetic’, Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism, 21, 1962, pp. 167-76; Kenneth Clark, ‘Roger Fry’, Dictionary of National Biography, 1931-1940, pp. 298-301; Quentin Bell, Roger Fry: an Inaugural Lecture, Leeds, 1964; Eugene W. Kleinbauer, Modern Perspectives in Western Art History: An Anthology of 20th-Century Writings on the Visual Arts, New York, 1971, p. 7; Jacqueline V. Falkenheim, Roger Fry and the Beginnings of Formalist Art Criticism, Ann Arbor, MI, 1980; Frances Spalding, Roger Fry: Art and Life, Berkeley, 1980; W. Kleinbauer, Research Guide to the History of Western Art, Chicago, 1982, p. 106; Calvin Tomkins, Merchants and Masterpieces: The Story of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, pp. 103-110; Andrew Ladis, ‘The Unmaking of a Connoisseur’, in: Richard Offner, A Discerning Eye: Essays on Early Italian Painting, University Park, PA, 1998, p. 11; Richard Shone, James Beechey and Richard Morphet, The Art of Bloomsbury: Roger Fry, Vanessa Bell and Duncan Grant, Princeton, 1999; Robert Nelson, Hagia Sophia, 1850-1950: Holy Wisdom Modern Monument. Chicago, 2004, pp. 160-161; Gretchen Gerzina, A Room of Their Own: the Bloomsbury Artists in American Collections, Ithaca, 2008.
Note: More information on Roger Fry may be found on the Dictionary Art Historians (http://www.dictionaryofarthistorians.org/), from where the text above is extracted. The above text is copyright of the Dictionary of Art Historians. The Burlington Magazine wishes to thank Lee Sorensen and the Dictionary of art historians for allowing the use of the above text.
Fryklund is a curator at the Nationalmuseum, Stockholm.
Carina Fryklund is a curator at the Nationalmuseum, Stockholm.
Anthony van Dyck: Masterpiece or Copy? (2009)
Late Gothic Wall Painting in the Southern Netherlands (2011)