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November 1979

Vol. 121 | No. 920

The Burlington Magazine

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  • Front Matter

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  • Delacroix's 'Christ at the Column'

    By Lee Johnson

    ONE of the most complex problems in studying the middle and late periods of Eugene Delacrois is to unravel the history and chronology of the many variants that he painted of the same subjects to meet the growing demand for his pictures from dealers and major collectors, as well as from personal friends who did not collect on a large scale. Incomplete or inaccurate descriptions in early sale and exhibition catalogues can make it extremely difficult to distinguish one version from another. 

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  • Turner, the Apocalypse and History: 'The Angel' and 'Undine'

    By Gerald E. Finley

    WHEN Turner painted the companion pictures, The Angel standing in the Sun and Undine giving the ring to Masaniello, Fisherman of Naples, probably between late 1845 and early 1846, he had approximately five years to live. He was seventy, plagued by recurrent illness and haunted by the spectre of death. He had been affected recently by the deaths of several close friends and colleagues. In June 1841, David Wilkie had died while returning from Egypt. Six months later, Francis Chantrey was dead; late in 1844, A. W. Callcott was no more. The deaths of family and friends had always moved Turner deeply, but advancing age and failing strength had made these losses increasingly difficult to bear. Because The Angel and Undine reflect in their meanings, Turner's psychological state at this time, they provide us with a remarkable final testament which reveals more completely the structure and texture of his mind. 

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  • Constable's Clouds

    By John Thornes

    'LARGE clouds like rocks, forebode great showers'; alongside this statement Constable wrote 'cumulostrati' in his own copy of Thomas Forster's Researches About Atmospheric Phanomena. This and other annotations, especially to the first chapter entitled 'Of Mr. Howard's Theory of the Origin and Modifications of Clouds', awake new interest in the supposition that Constable became fully familiar with Luke Howard's cloud classification before he painted his cloud studies of 1821-22, some of which have meteorologically accurate weather notes on the reverse. Constable's copy of Forster's book came to light as recently as 1972, when the artist's library was catalogued by Leslie Parris and Conal Shields. Before his discovery there was no direct evidence that Constable was familiar with Luke Howard's cloud classification, or that he possessed any meteorological text. In a letter to George Constable on 12th December 1836 Constable mentioned Forster's book, but gave no indication that he owned a copy: 'My observations...'

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  • Millet's 'Hagar and Ishmael'

    By Bruce Laughton

    ON or about 4th July 1848, the Minister of the Interior of the Second Republic of France issued an order which was conveyed to Citoyen Millet Peintre, charging him with the execution of a picture for the sum of 1800 francs. On 14th August Millet was paid 600 francs on account. It transpired that the picture concerned was to be Hagarand Ishmael, one of the largest canvases that he ever undertook to paint. But it was never delivered. Instead, he substituted a painting of Harvesters resting, little more than half the dimensions of the other canvas. It is not known at what time the substitution was made. All we do know is that he assured the Minister, in a letter dated 30th April 1849, that he had finished the painting which had been commissioned with all the care and conscientiousness possible; and would the Minister therefore kindly order payment of the 1200 francs balance due. His next sentence is worth quoting: 'Le tres...' 

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  • Light on the Origin of Los Caprichos

    By Xavier de Salas

    ALTHOUGH Gassier-Wilson, often following Sambricio, have made the sequence of events connected with Goya's illnesses in Cadiz in 1792-1793 and 1796-1797 generally accessible, it will be useful to recall them briefly. Their chronology is essential to any appraisal of the matters that form the raison d'etre of this note.

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  • The Earl of Rosse

    By Arthur Drew
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  • Reynolds Stone (1909-1979)

    By Jack Weatherburn Goodison
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  • Milton J. Lewine

    By John Harris
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  • Un Album Inedit de Croquis d'Hubert Robert

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  • Back Matter

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  • Sandro Botticelli

    By L. D. Ettlinger
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  • National Gallery Technical Bulletin

    By Herbert Lank
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  • John Sell Cotman: Early Drawings (1798-1812) in Norwich Castle Museum

    By Michael Pidgley
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  • John Gendall (1789-1865)

    By Michael Pidgley
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  • Current and Forthcoming Exhibitions: London and Edinburgh [Bomberg, Hoyland, Golding et alia]

    By Richard Shone
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  • Current and Forthcoming Exhibitions: Roman Fashions, London

    By Neil (N. M.) MacGregor
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  • Current and Forthcoming Exhibitions: Max Liebermann in Berlin

    By John Sillevis
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  • Current and Forthcoming Exhibitions: Jan Lievens at Brunswick

    By Christopher Brown
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  • Current and Forthcoming Exhibitions: New York

    By John T. Spike
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